(2021). “Locked Down, Lashing Out: Situational Triggers and Hateful Behavior Towards Minority Ethnic Immigrant.” Empirical Studies of Conflict Project (ESOC) Working Papers 23, Empirical Studies of Conflict Project.
COVID-19 caused a significant health and economic crisis, a condition identified as conducive to stigmatization and hateful behavior against minority groups. It is however unclear whether the threat of infection triggers violence in addition to stigmatization, and whether a violent reaction can happen at the onset of an unexpected economic shock before social hierarchies can be disrupted.
Using a novel database of hate crimes across Italy, we show that (i) hate crimes against Asians increased substantially at the pandemic onset, and that (ii) the increase was concentrated in cities with higher expected unemployment, but not higher mortality. We then examine individual, local and national mobilization as mechanisms. We find that (iii) local far-right institutions motivate hate crimes, while we find no support for the role of individual prejudice and national discourse.
Our study identifies new conditions triggering hateful behavior, advancing our understanding of factors hindering migrant integration.