(2020). The Political Legacy of Nazi Annexation, Working Paper
This paper uses the case of Nazi Operational Zones (OZ) in Italy during WWII to shed light on the legacy of foreign state repression. While the rest of Northern Italy was placed under Fascist rule, the OZ were de facto annexed by Nazi Germany. Using a spatial regression discontinuity design, we show that the OZ experienced harsher political persecution and violence. After the war, OZ areas exhibited greater support for radical opposition and lower political participation. Voters in affected areas showed lower political trust and less support for laws suppressing dissent. Foreign repression, even if temporary, has enduring political consequences.